PERCEPTIONS Country Report – Spain

In the area of economic migration, the two higher levels of government (i.e. the central government and the governments of the autonomous territories) share responsibility. Issues related to border security are a federal responsibility, and border controls are carried out by the National Police (in authorized border crossing points) and by Guardia Civil that is in charge of controlling the rest of the border territory and sea.

Nowadays, Moroccans remain the largest non-EU national immigrant group followed by the Romanians, whom since 2007 qualified for the communitarian regime following Romania’s accession to EU membership. In previous years, Spain remained untouched by the arrival of refugees from Syria and Iraq to the EU, since it was geographically out of their way. In 2019, the main trends of the last two years have continued: a steady increase in inflows and a reduction in outflows, a sustained increase in asylum figures and a considerable number of irregular arrivals by sea via the Southern Border.


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