Egypt is a major receiver of migrants and refugees in the region and has signed treaties and relating to the protection of refugees and migrants (both legal and irregular) on their territories. In March 2014, the Egyptian government formed the National Coordinating Committee on Combatting and Preventing Illegal Migration (NCCPIM), an inter-ministerial committee designed to lead on migration policy. After 2013, Egypt moved towards a more repressive strategy that involves active policing while the country also chose to redeploy resources to engage with migrants and refugees.
On the other hand, restrictive measures were put into place including limitation of the obtaining a residenct permit for longer than six months. Since the 2015 Valetta Summit on migration, in which Egypt led the African delegation, cooperation between Egypt and the EU has intensified. The EU has signed-off on one Egypt-specific programme under the EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa known as Enhancing the Response to Migration Challenges in Egypt (ERMCE).